ARTICLES IN 2007




Intsebenziswano karhulumente nemizi egcina imali kunye nongxowankulu abadibeneyo

(okanye kutheni urhulumente engasoze ayisombulule ingxaki yezindlu nokungaphangeli)

(Uphononongo olunzulu lohlahlo lwabiwo-mali luka 2007-2008 kunye nesibonelelo semivuzo nenkqubo yokuhlawuliswa ngesinyanzelo kwingxowa-mali yomhlala-phantsi)

Intetho yohlahlo lwabiwo-mali ka February neyoKwazisa ngeMeko yeLizwe nguManuel noMbeki, ngokulandelelana, zigxile ekuchaphazeleni kwinkolo ‘yentsebenziswano yokuhlala’('social solidarity'). Ngemva kwelikhwelo kulele into ekuyiyo yamaziko worhulumente woMzantsi Afrika ekubeni kwintsebenziswano nemizi (yalapha neyehlabathi) egcina imali nongxowankulu abadibeneyo, esilwa nabasebenzi.

Yi-IMF eqhuba ukuthotywa kwemivuzo eMzantsi Afrika
I-International Monetary Fund (IMF) noMzi ogcina imali weHlabathi ngabameli abaphambili bongxowankulu abadibeneyo kunye nemizi egcina imali emikhulu ekumbindi wama impiriyali. Bazizixhobo zama impiriyali ezinceda ukuqinisekisa ukuba abasebenzi behlabathi bahlala bengamakhoboka oxhaphazo oluqhubekekayo longxowankulu. Xa abasebenzi bephantsi kwengcinezelo yaye bephantsi kolawulo, i-IMF iye ithi ezoqoqosho ‘zizinzile’.

Ezoqoqosho longxowankulu behlabathi lusezingxakini ezingakazukuphela; alwandi koko luyehla. Olona shishino lukhulu lushishino lwezixhobo, ngamanye amagama, undoqo kubungxowankulu kwelixesha sikulo yimfuneko yokugcina imfazwe ziqhubeka. Olulandelayo ngobukhulu lushishino lweziyobisi; oku kuthetha ukuthi kunengeniso engaphaya kwezinkampani ukuzisa ‘unyango’ kodwa hayi ukuziphelisa ezizifongezifo nokugula kusehlabathini. Okuqhakamsheleneyo nala mashishini makhulu yimizi yehlabathi egcina imali leyo inobango kolushishino lwezixhobo neziyobisi. Ngokukhula kancinci kwezoqoqosho longxowankulu behlabathi kunye nokwehla kweengeniso, umfela ndawonye wemizi yehlabathi egcina imali nongxowankulu abadibeneyo basoloko bekhangela indlela zokuphungula indleko. Ama impiriyali soloko ezama ukutyhalela imiphumela yengxaki zabo kude kuwo, azibeke kubasebenzi ngokubanzi. Kwakho bazama ukutyhalela ingxaki zabo kwimihlana yabasebenzi abakumazwe asakhulayo, anjengo Mzantsi Afrika.

I-IMF ihlala ubuncikane kanye ngonyaka norhulumente woMzantsi Afrika. Ngo 2006 i-IMF babonwabile kuba kwakukho ‘inkxaso ekhulayo’ ‘yokujolisa kwixabiso lemali ekutyeni’ (inflation targeting). Ngokuvunyelwa yi IMF,urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika ubeke umlinganiselo wexabiso lemali ekutyeni (inflation) ube phakathi kwepesenti ezi
3 - 6%. Into ethethwa koku yeyokuba ngaphandle nje kokubulaleka kwabasebenzi ngamaxabiso okutya aphezulu, unyuso lwemivuzo lugcinwa kumlinganiselo ophakathi kwepesenti ezi 3 - 6%. Ujoliso kwixabiso lemali ekutyeni kengoko luthetha ukuthi imivuzo yabasebenzi iyathotywa okanye ingcinwa iphantsi ukuze iingeniso zongxowankulu zinyuke okanye ubuncikane zihlale zikho. Umbutho u-Phengululo loHlahlo lwabiwo-mali 2007 (Budget Review 2007) ngokungenazintloni luqhayise ‘ngonyuso mivuzo olungcono’ nangee ‘ngeniso zenkampani eziphezulu’ kule minyaka imbalwa idlulileyo. Ngo 2006 i-IMF ibimisa ukuba urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika makajolise kwixabiso lemali ekutyeni (inflation) elikumlinganiselo osesiphakathini, ukuthi, wepesenti ezi 4,5%. Nangona ephepheni, urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika wathi le nto izakubanzima, kwingxoxo eziqhubekayo zemivuzo yabasebenzi bakarhulumente, bamisa ukuyinyusa nge 5,3% bengagqithi. Ngamanye amagama, urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika umilisela iziphakamiso zeIMF zokugcina unyuso lwemivuzo luphantsi phakathi komlinganiselo wepesenti ezi 3 - 6%. Ukuthembeka abanako kongxowankulu behlabathi de urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika axolele ukujongana noqhankqalazo lwabasebenzi abangaphezulu kwesigidi nje ancede ukugcina iingeniso zama impiriyali. Abasebenzi abaninzi bachitha isiqingatha okanye ngaphezulu semivuzo yabo ekutyeni. Ngexabiso lemali ekutyeni (inflation) lokutya elikwipesenti ezi 20% okanye ngaphezulu, kucacile ukuba kwanalamabango emanyano zabasebenzi bakarhulumente epesenti ezi 12% awa phantsi kwimfuno zabasebenzi. Amalungu emanyano kufuneka aqinisekise ukuba inkokheli zabo azinikezeli ngaphantsi kwepesenti ezi 12% ezime kuzo ngoku; umvuzo onyuswa kancinci uza, njengokuba kubenjalo ngaphambili, kunika umzekelo kubasebenzi bonke. (jonga kwi pamphlet yethu yexabiso lemali ekutyeni - inflation)

Iqinisekile ngendima yobungxowankulu karhulumente woMzantsi Afrika abayiyo de i-IMF yaqikelela ukuba unyuso lwemivuzo luzakuhla ukusuka kwipesenti ezi 7,2% ukuya kwipesenti ezi 6,5% ngo 2005 ukuya ku 2011.

Into yokuba i-IMF ithethe ‘ngenkxaso ekhulayo’ yokujolisa kwixabiso lemali ekutyeni (inflation targeting) ithetha ukuthi kukho inkxaso eninzi evela kwinkokheli zemanyano zabasebenzi yochatha ‘owoyamene nexabiso lemali ekutyeni (inflation)’ kunye nezivumelwano zeminyaka emininzi. Le nto ithetha ukuthi abasebenzi kufuneka bazibeke esweni inkokheli zemanyano zabasebenzi, yaye bazitshintshe ukuba kuyimfuneko, nje ukuba zibe ngabameli (agents) bezivumelwa ezayamene nexabiso lemali ekutyeni (inflation) (lobuxoki) yaye/ okanye izivumelwano zeminyaka emininzi.

I-IMF kwakho iqhuba uthengiso lwezinto zikarhulumente kubantu babucala
Kwiintlanganiso norhulumente woMzantsi Afrika i-IMF ibisoloko ithetha ngothengiso lwezinto zikarhulumente kubantu babucala. Nangona ephepheni, urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika elimisile oluthengiso, okubonakalayo babheka phambili ngalo nge PPP (Public-Private Partnerships) nangokuthengisa inkonzo. Endleleni ebisiya kulonyulo lukazwelonke luka 2004 iANC yathembisa ngokukunika ingqwalasela ukugxothwa emisebenzini nokuthengiswa kwenkonzo okungalawulekiyo okwakuqhubeka. Kwintetho zika February, uthengiso lwezinto zikarhulumente nothengiso lwenkonzo beluphakanyiswa ngokuphandle yaye lusombeswa ‘njengenkqubo yokuthengiswa koshishino’. I-ANC ngoku iba zintshatsheli zokuthengisa inkonzo. Okunene, uthengiso lwenkonzo alubanga yinqwelo yokuthengiswa kwezinto zikarhulumente kuphela kodwa lubeyindlela yokuxhamlisa abathile bomgangatho ophakathi iqatha kubungxowankulu. Inkonzo zithengiselwa iBEE, Black Economic Empowerment, ezinkampani zihambisana nokuphungulwa okanye nokuphulukana kwaphela neenzuzo (benefits) kwakunye nemivuzo ephantsi. Uthengiso lwenkonzo kengoko yindlela yokugqithisela ingxaki yokuhla kwengeniso kubasebenzi ngexabiso lepeni ezimbalwa zesilivere kongxowankulu abakhuliswayo.

KwiAfrika ngokubanzi inkqubo yeIMF yothengiso lwezinto zikarhulumente kubantu babucala iyaqhubekeka. Phofu isiseko se NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa’s Development) luthengiso lwezinto zikarhulumente kubantu babucala. Ukubheka phambili, umqathango weIMF wokwandisa ongxowankulu boMzantsi Afrika kwi Afrika (okuyinyani linyathelo lama impiriyali lokwandisa ulawulo) ngowokuba kobelwane ngeengxaki. Ngamanye amagama, ukuba eliphulo kwiAfrika yonke alinangeniso, abasebenzi eMzantsi Afrika kwakufuneka bathwale ingxenye yomthwalo, ngemivuzo nangenzuzo eziphantsi, njalo njalo.

Ama impiriyali asalawula ezoqoqosho loMzantsi Afrika
Sukela ngemfazwe yamaBhulu naMangesi ka 1902, mhla ama impiriyali aluqinisa ulawulo lwezoqoqosho loMzantsi Afrika, ulawulo lwawo lubheke phambili, ngaphandle kokuphazanyiswa. Zange khe kwabakho isithuba apho ulawulo lwezoqoqosho ngama impiriyali lakha lapheliswa. Ngokuwubonakalisa umzabalazo woMzantsi Afrika njengowawusilwa ne ‘apartheid’, eligama lithetha ngokuthe ngqo ‘ukungabandakanywa’, kuthetha ukuthi into iANC eyayibona iyingxaki yeyokuba abamnyama abakumgangatho ophakathi bachwethelwe ecaleni okanye ababandakanywanga ekuxhamleni ingeniso kwimeko yobungxowankulu yokuxhaphaza. Zonke iziseko zolawulo lwama impiriyali zange zacelwa mngeni; ngeliphandle umzabalazo wabo ‘wokulwa nobandlululo’ yabakukususa amaAfrikaner akumgangatho ophakathi ukuze babenelungelo lokuba ngabaphathi (managers) abatsha egameni lama impiriyali.

Inkampani ezintlanu ezona zinkulu, Anglo American, Liberty Life, Rembrandt, Old Mutual no Sanlam, zisalawula isininzi sezoqoqosho loMzantsi Afrika; kwa ezinkampani zidibeneyo zilawula ngaphanangapha yaye zinezabelo kwimizi egcina imali nakwinkampani zawona mazwe ama impiriyali; kwakho ziphethe macala kweyona mizi emikhulu emine ‘yalapha’ egcina imali (Absa, Standard, FNB, Nedbank). 

Izivumelwano urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika azenza kongxowankulu balapha kengoko, ngokuphandle zizivumelwano nama impiriyali kwakho.

Intsomi yo ‘lwakhiwo lwemisebenzi’    
UMbeki, uManuel nenkokheli zikaCosatu zimanyene ekudumiseni uhlobo urhulumente aqhuba ngalo ekwakheni imisebenzi. Bade babhengeze ukwehla okungephi ekungaphangelini. Okubonakalayo kuyaphikisana noluvo lwenkokheli zomfela ndawonye.

I-Zicwangciso eZiqingqiweyo zeSebe Lwezemisebenzi yoluntu zika 2007-2009 (The Strategic Plan of the Department of Public works 2007-2009) ziveza elubala ubume belibango likarhulumente lokwakha isigidi semisebenzi kwisigaba esilandelayo. Kwisigaba sika 2006 kangange 223000 amathuba ‘emisebenzi’ akhiwa ngokwakha indlela, imizila kaloliwe nezoqhakamshelwano ngendleko ezi R823 million. Oku kufikelela kwi R300 ngomsebenzi (per worker) ngenyanga. Thelekisa lemivuzo yabasebenzi bethutyana neyabasebenzi bakamasipala yesigxina ebekumele kuqashwe bona yaye siyabona ukuba urhulumente ubekela bucala (saving) izigidi zerandi ngokuqasha amakhesela yaye kwangaxesha linye ephungula ukuqesha isininzi, abasebenzi isigxina. I-R300 ngenyanga ebekelwe abasebenzi ibalwa njengo ’msebenzi’. Emveni kokuba zigqityiwe ukwakhiwa indlela, abasebenzi bethutyana bayatyalwa, ke ngoko into ebonakala njengesigidi semisebenzi ephepheni okunene sisigidi semisebenzi emifutshane, yethutyana, leyo ingenakubalwa njengolwakhiwo lwemisebenzi. Ubeko bucala lwemali olukhulu lwendleko zabasebenzi libhatalwa bucala ngokuthoba irhafu yesibini yenkampani sukela kwipesenti ezi 12,5% ukuya kwipesenti ezi 10% (bafumane ongxowankulu izigidi ezithathu zamawaka erandi (R3 Billion) ngonyaka). Ngamanye amagama, ngaphandle kokuthotywa kwerhafu, urhulumente ebezakubanezigidi ezithathu zamawaka erandi (R3 Billion) ngaphezulu zokuqasha isininzi sabasebenzi isigxina ngokomgangatho wemanyano. Ngaphandle kwezigidi ezithathu zamawaka erandi (R3 Billion),

Into efihlwa ‘kokukukhula’ kwengqesho kuxelwayo yilahleko eninzi yemisebenzi engamakhulu amathandathu anamashumi amathathu amawaka (630 000) emaplasini sukela ngo 2001.

Inani labantu abakwiminyaka eselungelweni lokusebenza linyuka ngamakhulu amane amawaka (400 000) ngonyaka ubuncikane. Urhulumente nongxowankulu bakha imisebenzi engaphantsi kwelinani ngonyaka. Le nto ithetha ukuthi umgangatho okhoyo wokungaphangeli uzakunyuka minyaka le. Ke ngoko ‘ukuzimisela’ kukarhulumente nongxowankulu kulwakhiwo lwemisebenzi ngamampunge.

Ngoko ke ziwufihla njani inkokheli zikaCosatu norhulumente umbono onguwo wokungasebenzi?

Inkcazo yomntu ongaphangeliyo ngokusemthethweni itshintshiwe ayabaquka abo bangaphangeliyo sele belahle ithemba lokufuna kwa umsebenzi. Kuphela ngabo bangasebenziyo abo basakhangela umsebenzi ababalwa njengabangaphangeliyo ngokusemthethweni. Ngobubuxoki urhulumente uthoba amanani ezinga lokungaphangeli ukusuka kwipesenti ezi 40% liyokuma malunga nepesenti ezi 27%. Sukela ngo 2001 izinga lentatho nxaxheba ekuphangeleni lehla ukusuka kwipesenti ezi 58,3% ukuya kwipesenti ezi 56,0%. Into ethethwa koku yi le sukela ngo 2001 inani labangasebenziyo abasele belahle ithemba lokuba bangaze bafumane umsebenzi lanyuka ngesigidi esinesiqingatha (1,6 million). Oku akubonisi ‘mpumelelo’ ekwakheni imisebenzi kodwa ingxaki enkulu. Olu luphawu ngqo lamanani akhulayo labasakusebenza abayimiduka (lumpen proletariat) okanye ngamanye amagama, lo ngunobangela osemva kokwanda ‘kobundlobongela’. Imeko yobungxowankulu yimeko yobundlobongela ngokuthi ubutyebi abasebenzi ababuvelisayo buyabiwa kubo; obubutyebi buzinze ezandleni zegcuntswana longxowankulu nakwingcungcu zomgangatho ophakathi ngelixesha abasebenzi bagcinwe endlaleni. Injalo imeko ekuyiyo yentlupheko yabasebenzi ekuthi mihla le, isininzi sabangaphangeliyo siye sinikezela ekuthini singaze sifumana umsebenzi; kungoko isininzi sibhenela ebukolini nasekuhlaseleni abantakwabo abangabasebenzi nabakumgangatho ophakathi.

Amanani abantu, abangaphangeliyo, anyuka ukusuka kwishumi elinesihlanu elinesiqingatha sezigidi (15,8 million) ngo 2001 ukuya kwishumi elinesixhenxe elinesiqingatha sezigidi (17,4 million) ngo 2005. Akukho ‘maqhinga’ angakanani anokuyijika lenyani. Amabango obuxoki karhulumente ekwakheni imisebenzi abonisa ukuba abanazinjongo zokufezekisa imfuno zabasebenzi; nxamnye noko kubonisa ukuba urhulumente uthembeke ngokungathethekiyo kwimfuno zongxowankulu ukutsho nezama impiriyali.

Okuxhalabisayo luluvo lweenkokheli zikaCosatu, kamsinya nje emva kweNkongolo ka September 2006 ebingqongqo. LeNkongolo icacisile kangangoko ubungxowankulu beANC kunye nenxaxheba yayo yokuzinzisa ukungaphangeli. Iziphakamiso zeNkongolo zaphikiswa zinkokheli zikaCosatu mhla zabanga ukuba zonwabile yinkqubela karhulumente ekwakheni imisebenzi. Iphulo lwemisebenzi nokulwa nentlupheko, olwavunywa yi le Nkongolo ka September lujikwe lwasebenza ndawonye neANC, njengenyathelo lokuncamela lokuvuselela amasebe ayo (i-ANC). Ngako oko amalungu kaCosatu ayasetyenzswa ekuvuseleleni amasebe afileyo ombutho ohambisana nongxowankulu endaweni yokwakha amasebe azimeleyo abasebenzi. Esi sisithuko kubathunywa ababezimase leNkongolo.

Ingxaki yezindlu
Kukho indawo ezibalekayo apho ukuthembeka okungathethekiyo kukarhulumente kongxowankulu kutyhileke  khona. Sizakuzinqamlela kum ba wezindlu:

Urhulumente uzimisele ukuchitha ngaphezu kwamashumi amabini anesithoba ezigidi zamawaka erandi (R29 Billion) kumabala ambalwa okudlala (stadiums) nakwi Gautrain. Le mali iphantse yalingana nebiyabelwe ulwakhiwo lwezindlu kuzwe lonke ku 2006. Oku kubonisa ukuba urhulumente uzimisele ngamandla ekwenzeleni ongxowankulu abambalwa ingeniso kwimidlalo yebhola ekhatywayo yendebe yehlabathi ka 2010 kunokufezekisa imfuno eziphambili zabasebenzi.
 
Ngokwe StatsSA (2006) inani lamatyotyombe, labanxuse ngasemva nelabarentisayo liyakhula kangange    (236 000) ngonyaka. Oku kuthetha ukuthi urhulumente kufuneka echithe ubuncikane ishumi elinanye elinesiqingatha sezigidi zamawaka erandi (R11,8 Billion) nje ukugcina isantya esikhoyo esikhulayo (kusafuneka ekhele intsapho ezizigidi ezithathu (3 million) ezikhoyo ezingenamakhaya). Kusenjalo urhulumente wabela malunga nesithoba sezigidi zamawaka erandi (R9 Billion) kuphela nyaka ngamnye kulwakhiwo lwezindlu ezintsha. Ulwabelo lwezindlu lulonke lumalunga namashumi amathathu ezigidi zamawaka erandi (R30 Billion) ngonyaka kodwa ngaphantsi kweshumi lezigidi zerandi (R10 Billion) ziya elwakhiweni. Kwenzekentoni kumashumi amabini ezigidi zamawaka erandi (R20 Billion)? Ngubani oxhamlayo? Ngamanye amagama, abasemagunyeni kulakhiwo lwezindlu bayazityebisa, bazihlawulisa imivuzo emikhulu kodwa xa kubhekiswa kwabangenazindlu, baxelelwa ukuba mabalinde yaye babenomonde; ukuba abangenazindlu babenentlahla bangasifumana isiphiwo sepali ezine, iplastic nezikhonkwane.

Oku kuthethe ukuthi, kungathethi kuthi abasahlala ematyotyombeni nangasemva abasoze bazifumane izindlu kuphela kodwa amanani okungabinazindlu azakuhlala enyuka minyaka le. Injongo ezikhankanyiweyo zento ebizwa Millenium goals zokutshabalalisa intlalo yamatyotyombe ngo 2014 idizekile njengelinye iqhinga lokumisa intshukumo zesininzi zabasebenzi. Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, kufutshane no 2014 urhulumente uzakuza namaqhinga amatsha ne ’zicwangciso’ ezitsha zolwakhiwo lwezindlu. Urhulumente uzingca ngokunikezela ngezindlu zemboleko ezintsha ezi 300 000 kunyaka ophelileyo; kodwa ngaphandle koku amanani entlalo yamatyotyombe enyuka kwangaxesha nye. Urhulumente uncedisile intsapho ezi 300 000 esongeza, zibengamakhoboka emizi egcina imali, ebonisa ukuba urhulumente uzimisele ukuxhasa ukufumana ingeniso ngolwakhiwo lwezindlu. Isantya esicothayo sonikezelo lwezindlu naso songeza kwintlupheko yabasebenzi yaye siyanceda ngokwenyusela phezulu amaxabiso ezindlu lawo imizi egcina imali nenkampani ezakhayo ezidibeneyo zixhamla khona (jonga i-pamphlet yethu yom ba wezidlu ngeenkcukacha ezithe vetshe). Inkokheli eziphambili zeANC zichophe kwibhodi zemizi egcina imali ngoko ke ayothusi into yokuba unikezelo lwezindlu luqhutywe ngokwenkqubo yobungxowankulu hayi ngokusekelezwe kwimfuno zabasebenzi.

Asgisa = Gear 2
Urhulumente uthi uzimisele ekuchitheni amakhulu amane aneshumi elinesithandathu sezigidi zamawaka zerandi (R416 Billion) kwilixa elilandelayo ekwakheni izinto zoluntu (infrastructure). Ezi ikakhulu izakuba zindlela, indawo zezikhephe, ezoqhakamshelwano, umbane nezothutho; ngokuthe ngqo olu luncediso olukhulu (giant subsidy)  kongxowankulu bandise uxhaphazo lukhawuleze kubasebenzi yaye ngokukhawuleza bafumane ingeniso ezingaphaya kubasebenzi boMzantsi Afrika. Ongxowankulu bafundile kuGear (Growth, Employment and Redistribution) ukuthi ngoku bazisa u-Asgisa (Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative South Africa) njengezicwangciso ezingacacanga ezingenamida icacileyo ukwenzela kungacaci mpela ukuba yintoni ubume bezizicwangciso zokusebenza kanye kanye. Zikhona indawo ezifana kuzo phofu:

1.   Bobabini uGear noAsgisa basekelwe ukuqinisa ubungxowankulu (ngamanye amagama, bobabini bamile ekugcineni abasebenzi bephantsi kolawulo);
2.   Bobabini bathembisa into yokuba ukuba ukwanda kwezoqoqosho kufikelele kwipesenti ezi 6% ngoko kuzakwakheka imisebenzi engamakhulu amahlanu amawaka 500 000 ngonyaka (ngamanye amagama, babanga ukuthi ukuba ongxowankulu banikwe ubutyebi bazakwakha imisebenzi emininzi);
3.   Bobabini babalula udendo olumandla kubasebenzi bakarhulumente njengokuba inkqubo yolwakhiwo (lwendlela, njalo njalo) isenziwa ngabasebenzi bethutyana;
4.   Bobabini babalula ubungqongqo kwimivuzo okanye ‘ekujoliseni kwixabiso lemali ekutyeni’ (‘inflation targeting’) – ngamanye amagama abasebenzi mabayamkele imivuzo ephantsi ngelilixa ongxowankulu befumana iingeniso eziphezulu;
5.   Ukuthotywa kwamandla eRandi - into ekucingwa izakuzisa ‘ukhuphiswano olungaphaya’ kutshintshiselwano ngezimali (ithethe ukuthi uphungulo lwemivuzo kubasebenzi bonke xa uthelekisa namaxabiso ehlabathi ).

Ngo 2006 amandla eRandi athotywa ngaphezulu kwepesenti ezi 15%. Lo nto ithetha ukuthi ngokomgangatho wehlabathi impahla ezithengiswe ngaphandle ongxowankulu zibaphathele ipesenti ezi 15% zeRandi ngaphezulu abayinyusa kunjalo imivuzo yabasebenzi. Ngoko ke ngokomgangatho wehlabathi, abasebenzi bebonke baphulelwe imivuzo ngepesenti ezi 15%. Thelekisa oku kongxowankulu nozicaka zabo ezikurhulumente ezifumene ipesenti ezi 30% + uchatha kwimivuzo yaye bona bangachaphazelwayo luthotyo lwamandla eRandi.

Udendo lwabasebenzi bakarhulumente luyaqhubeka ukuba ngumbhexeshi wothengiso lwezinto zikarhulumente kubantu babucala nokheseliso. Umzekelo, ukwehla komgangatho wenkonzo zempilo zikarhulumente kukhuthaza onesi nabanye abasebenzi zibhedlela bongeze ngezinye indawo (moonlight) okanye basebenzele ezizibhedlele zabucala zihlumayo. Urhulumente ukhuphe ngaphezu kwesiqingatha sezigidi Zamawaka eRandi kulakhiwo lwee- FET kholeji zabucala, ngeliphadle imfundo yamabanga aphezulu (high schools) jikelele uyithengisela abantu babucala.

Into ephazamisayo ngo Asgisa yeyokuba inkokheli zemanyano zabasebenzi ne People’s Budget Campaign, zimxhasa ngokungathethekiyo, ngeliphandle zibayimilomo yepolisi zeIMF kubasebenzi. Abasebenzi kufuneka bacele umngeni ku Asgisa nakwinkokheli ezimphakamisayo. 

Ayothusi into yokuba oluhlaselo lungaka lwenziwa kubasebenzi kuhambe ngaxesha linye nokuthabatha isihlalo ngurhulumente woMzantsi Afrika kwi UN Security Council kwakho nokuba nguSihlalo wamazwe akwi G20 (amaqela oorhulumente abalawulwa nabazizicaka zama impiriyali) ngo 2007. Bazibonakalisile ngokwabo ukuba bangabameli abathembekileyo (reliable agents) bama impiriyali.   

Isibonelelo semivuzo nenkqubo yokuhlawuliswa ngesinyanzelo kwingxowa yomhlala-phantsi

Ukudlala ngabantu okwenziwa ngurhulumente kunye nomfela ndawonye ongaqhawukiyo wabo nemizi egcina imali nongxowankulu abadibeneyo akukho apho kubonakala kakuhle khona kunenkqubo yabo entsha ‘yenkxaso ngezimali kongxowankulu xa behlawula imivuzo’ (wage subsidy) kunye ‘nentlawulo etsalwa ngesinyanzelo emivuzweni yabasebenzi’(compulsory retirement scheme). Injongo ezichaziweyo zobonelelo ngezimali kwabangaphangeliyo kwesisithuba, njengokuba zixeliwe kwi Budget Review (2007) zinika umdla:
1.   Ezonanjongo eziphambili kukuthoba amaxabiso engqesho. Ngamanye amagama, le yinkxaso ngezimali(subsidy) yamashumi amathathu ezigidi zamawaka erandi (R30Bn) ngonyaka kongxowankulu abakhulu zokwenyusa iingeniso zabo;
2.   Irhafu izakwenyuka iquke namahlwempu nonozitendi. Ngalondlela umthengisi sitalatweni anganyanzeleka anikezele ngelekese enye kwirhafu kwezilishumi kwezo azithengisayo;
3.   Makuphungulwe  ukuxhomekeka kwimali yesibonelelo. Ngamanye amagama, njengokuba ngaphambili, abambalwa abo babenethamsanqa lokuphila bafikelele kwiminyaka engamashumi amathandathu (60) okanye engamashumi amathandathu anesihlanu (65) bebenikwe isiqinisekiso semali yomhlala phantsi karhulumente, kungekudala wonkubani ngoku uzakunyanzeliswa afake isandla kule ngxowa; Oku kuvusa umbuzo obalulekileyo wokuba kutheni ulonyulo lusenziwa. Ngamaxesha olonyulo imibutho yongxowankulu ithembisa into yonke kumahlwempu. Ukuthi urhulumente ungaphezulu koluntu yaye eliliso lakhe wonke ubani eluntwini, kuvele elubala njengenkqatho. Ukunga ‘xhomekeki kwimali yesibonelelo’ kuthi urhulumente unenkcitho encinci kumahlwempu kwangaxesha linye ebekela intyenka eninzi kongxowankulu. U-Sarkozy (wase France) noMbeki basebenzisa ipolisi ezifanayo ezilwa nabasebenzi;
4.   Kuzakubakho ukutsala ngaxesha-nye ‘kwingxaki’. Ngamanye amagama, amahlwempu azakuhlawulela (subsidise) izityebi. Njengokuba ingxowa-mali yomhlalaphantsi iphethwe yimizi yabucala egcina imali oku kuthetha ukuthi kuzakubakho uxhaphazo oluhlanganyenelweyo yimizi egcinal imali. Igalelo lomsebenzi ngamnye lizakuvalelwa yimizi egcina imali. Akukho msebenzi uzakubanako ukufikelela kule mali bade (ukuba baphile kangangoko) bafikelele kwiminyaka yomhlala-phantsi. Kwiminyaka eyandulela umhlala-phantsi, imizi egcina imali izakuyivalela lemali isenza eninzi (invest) yaye izuze ingeniso ngayo. Iqhekeza lalongeniso lihlawulwe kumsebenzi ekugqibeleni. Le ntsebenziswano nemizi egcina imali izakwandisa indlala ayizukuyiphelisa njengokuba umsebenzi ezakuya ekhaya nentlawulo encinci yaye asokole yindlala engathethekiyo. Okukuhlawula ngesinyanzelo kumhlala-phantsi kuzakukhokelela ekubhubheni kwabasebenzi abaninzi phambi kokufikelela kwiminyaka yomhlala-phantsi ngenxa yendlala.

NgokweNgxelo yoPhuhliso loLuntu yombutho weZizwe eziManyeneyo ngoMzantsi Afrika (2005), iminyaka yokuphila eMzantsi Afrika yehla ukusukela kwiminyaka eyi 62 ngo 1990 ukuya kwiminyaka eyi 46 ngo 2003. Oku kuthetha ukuthi uninzi lwabasebenzi aluzukufikelela kwaphela kwiminyaka yomhlala-phantsi. Into eyenziwa loluhlobo lutsha lomhlala-phantsi, kukunyanzelisa abasebenzi bahlawule ngaphezulu ipesenti ezi 15% zerhafu, ezo bangasokuze balibone uncedo lwayo. Ke ngoko ubeko lwemali bucala  olunyanzeliswayo luzakuthetha ukuxhuzulwa ngesinyanzelo kwepesenti ezi 15%  kwimivuzo esele iphantsi. Oku kuzakwenziwa kubasebenzi bonke akukhathalisekile nokuba barhola i - R3, R300, okanye i- R3000 okanye ngaphezulu. Urhulumente umisa ukuba lomhlala-phantsi uzakuphatheka. Ngamanye amagama xa abasebenzi beshiya umsebenzi besiya komnye, akuzukubakho ntlawulo izakwenziwa yaye umsebenzi kuzakufuneka alinde iminyaka yomhlala-phantsi ukuze afumane imali yomhlala-phantsi qho ngenyanga. Abangaphangeliyo nabaziqeshileyo bazakuba kwimeko embi njengokuba igalelo labo lizakuba phantsi okanye lingabonakali.

Urhulumente umisa ukuba oluxhuzulo luzakungcitywa sisibonelelo semivuzo (wage subsidy). Kodwa esisibonelelo asihlawulwa kumsebenzi kodwa kungxowankulu. Ukuba umsebenzi urhola i-R1200 ngenyanga ngoko umqeshi ufumana isibonelelo esimalunga ne R400 ngenyanga. Kuthethe ukuthi umqeshi uhlawula kuphela i- R800 ngenyanga ngomsebenzi ngelilixa intsalela, i-R400, ihlawulwa ngurhulumente. Ukuba umvuzo uyi R1250 ngenyanga ngoko urhulumente uhlawula isibonelelo sakhe esikhulu, esi yi R420. Oku kuthetha ukuthi abaqeshi bahlawula kuphela i-R830 ngomsebenzi yaye intsalela ihlawulwa ngurhulumente. Kwimivuzo engaphantsi kwe R1200 ngenyanga urhulumente uhlawula kuphela i-1/3 yomvuzo. Umzekelo, ukuba umvuzo womsebenzi ngenyanga yi R600 ngoko urhulumente uhlawula i-R200 yaye umqeshi ahlawule i-R400. Kwakho ukuba umvuzo yi R300 ngoko urhulumente uhlawula i-R100 ngelilixa umqeshi ehlawula i-R200, njalo njalo. Ngemivuzo engaphuzulu kwe R1250 kodwa ingaphantsi kwe R3750 ngenyanga, isibonelelo siyehla ukusuka kwi R420 ukuya ku 0. Umzekelo, ukuba umvuzo wenyanga yi R2000 ngoko urhulumente uhlawula i-R290 yaye umqeshi ahlawule i-R1710; kwakho ukuba umvuzo yi R3000 ngenyanga ngoko urhulumente uhlawula i-R125 ngomsebenzi ngelilixa umqeshi ehlawula i-R2875 yaye njalo njalo. Ngemivuzo ye R3750 nangaphezulu urhulumente akahlawuli sibonelelo kubaqeshi.

 

 Urhulumente umisa ukuba oku kuzakukhuthaza abaqashi banyuse imivuzo iyokuma kwi R1250 ngenyanga. Kodwa nawuphina uchatha owenzekayo kwimivuzo, okuphambili uzakuxhuzulwa kubasebenzi ngegalelo lesinyanzelo kumhlala-phantsi. Oku kuthetha ukuthi ukuba ephepheni umsebenzi urhola i-R1200 ngenyanga, uzakuya ekhaya ne R1020 yaye oyena mntu uxhamlayo izakuba ngungxowankulu. Abasebenzi bazakucinga ukuba bazakuba ‘kwimeko engcono’ kodwa isininzi asuzukuphila kwaphela side sixhamle iziqhamo zemisebenzi yabo. Kwakho kukho ingozi kuye nabanina orhola ngaphezulu kwe R1250 ngenyanga. Abaqashi bazakufumana ifuthe lokugxotha abasebenzi baqashe abanye abazakuwamkela umvuzo oyi R1250 ngenyanga. Ngokomlando wangaphambili wongxowankulu intlaninge yamagama wabaqashiweyo kodwa bengekho (ghost workers) izakwenzeka (ongxowankulu bazakuthetha ubuxoki ngamanani abasebenzi ababaqashileyo yaye bafune izibonelelo zababasebenzi bangekhoyo)  - uzakubajonga njani urhulumente ukuba abasebenzi okunene baqashiwe  ngongxowankulu?

Ukongeza koku, inani elikhoyo i-13600 lengxowa-mali yemihlala-phantsi yabucala lizakuqhubeka lisebenza; intlawulo yabucala yomhlala-phantsi yesiqhelo izakuhlawulwa kusongezwa phezulu kwale ‘yomhlala-phantsi karhulumente’, leyo izakukhuthaza abasebenzi ngobuninzi babhenele kwingxowa-mali yomhlala-phantsi yabucala njengokuba umgangatho ‘womhlala-phantsi karhulumente’ ubonakala ungazukuba lulutho njengokuba kunjalo kulo ukhoyo. Lenkqubo intsha yokuhlawuliswa ngesinyanzelo kwingxowa-mali yomhlala-phantsi ithetha uthengiso lwengxowa-mali ‘karhulumente’ kubantu babucala. Imizi egcina imali izakuzuza ngokugcina imali yomsebenzi ngamnye evalelweyo kwakho ifumane ingeniso kwingxowa-mali yomhlala-phantsi wabucala lowo abasebenzi bazakunyanzeleka babhenele kuwo. Oku kusekhondweni likarhulumente lokuyeka kancinci kancinci ukuthatha uxanduva lweemfuno zabasebenzi.

Ukongeza, kwesisibonelelo sitsha semivuzo kunye nenkqubo yokuhlawula umhlala-phantsi ngesinyanzelo kuthetha uthengiso olukhulu kubantu babucala, kwakho kuthetha ‘isivumelwa sokukhulisa’ (‘empowerment deal’) esinika abathile abamnyama abakumgangatho ophakathi ukufikelela kumaWaka ezigidi zeRandi zengxowa-mali yomhlala-phantsi ngokuxhaphaza isininzi sabasebenzi. Ngaphambili ko 1994 i-National Party yasebenzisa ukufikelela kwayo kwingxowa-mali yomhlala-phantsi karhulumente ngokwenza amatyala okuthenga izixhobo okwenza nezinye izinto ukucinezela abasebenzi. Sisahlawula loomatyala nanamhlanje. Ngoku i-ANC izakwakha ingxowa-mali yomhlala-phantsi karhulumente, basebenzise ukufikelela kwabo kuyo bahlawule izivumelwano zeBEE yaye ukuba kuyimfuneko kwakho baxhase ngezimali naluphina uxinizelelo lophakamo lwabasebenzi. Abasebenzi bayanyanzeliswa bafake isandla ekuzixhaphazeni nasekuzicinezelweni kwabo.
Inkqubo eloluhlobo ziziphumo zabamnyama abakumgangatho ophakathi zokuba bexhomekeke kwingququ eziwa kwitafile yongxowankulu abadibeneyo. Ngamathuba anqongopheleyo kwabamnyama abakumgangatho ophakathi okuba sezindaweni njengabaxhaphazi (ambalwa amashishini amatsha akhulayo), i-ANC ize nenkqubo entsha izokufikelela kwimali evalelwa ngabasebenzi kuthi ngaxesha nye igqithisa imihlala-phantsi yabasebenzi ezandleni yemizi egcina imali (ingxowa-mali karhulumente igcinwe kweyona mizi emine egcina imali yaye abasebenzi bazakunyanzeliseka bazivalelele ngokwabo ukuze kukhule imihlala-phantsi yabo). Intembakalo yabo kongxowankulu abakhulu igqibelele; abasebenzi babekwa emalahleni egameni 'lentsebenziswano yentlalo'.

Kwakhona, iPeople's Budget Campaign (PBC) kunye nenkokheli zikaCosatu ingakumbi azithulanga nje kwaphela malunga nobungozi boluhlaselo lutsha kubasebenzi kodwa zithabatha inxaxheba kwingxoxo zokuluqoqa. Banika ulwamkeleko lwezopolitiko kuhlaselo oluzayo kubasebenzi. I-People's Budget Campaign (PBC) ngokwenene ‘bajolise kumaziko aphembelela intlupheko’ - bayaluqinisa uhlaselo kubasebenzi ngokunika urhulumente ingcebiso kwindlela eziphakamilelo zokuzisa imeko yobungxowankulu ngobuso obutyhilekileyo. Akothusi ke i-PBC ixhaswa ngezimali ngama impiriyali (esebenzisa iManyano yase Europe) kunye namasebe orhulumente abanyanzelisa ukungalingani bobungxowankulu (i-Commission on Gender Equality ne Human Rights Commission).

Ezinye impawu zobungxowankulu boluhlahlo-lwabiwo mali

  • Amaxabiso okutya alinganiswa neDollar (ngamanye amagama, amaxabiso anyuswa ngabom kuzokonyuka umgangatho wengeniso zongxowankulu abadibeneyo behlabathi – jonga i-pamphlet yethu ye inflation)
  • Ubuyiselo lomhlaba (lwepesenti ezi 30%) luzakwenzeka ngokwemigaqo yongxowankulu – ngamanye amagama uxhaphazo lwabasebenzi basezifama luzakuqhubekeka kulemihlaba ‘ibuyiselweyo’;
  • Amaxabiso abasebenzi ehla ngepesenti ezi 40% ukusukela ngo 2002 (iingeniso ezingaphaya kongxowankulu)
  • Sukela ngo 2002 ukuya ku 2005 imbuyekezo kwimali-mboleko yenyuka ngepesenti ezi 300% (unyuko olungaphaya kwiingeniso zongxowankulu)
  • Ukusweleka kweemveku kwenyuke ukusuka ku 45 kwaba 1000 ukuya ku 53 kwaba 1000 labantwana abasweleka ekuzalweni (sukela ngo 1990 ukuya 2003)
  • Inani labantwana abaswelekayo abangaphantsi kweminyaka emihlanu nalo lenyuka ukusuka ku 60 ukuya ku 66 kwaba 1000
  • Ukusukela ngo 1995 bonke ongxowankulu abangengobemi balapha bebephuma nezahlulo neengeniso ngaphandle simahla (amalungelo ama impiriyali okwenza ingeniso ngokukhawuleza agqibelele kodwa abasebenzi baxelelwa ukuba babenomonde balindele u 2014 imfuno ezingaphelelanga)
  • Kwenziwe ityala lamashumi amathathu anesibini ezigidi zamawaka erandi (R32 Billion) lizokuhlawula izivumelwano zezixhobo (lamatyala kuzakufuneka ahlawulwe iminyaka emininzi ezayo yaye kwakho anyusa umthwalo werhafu kubasebenzi nakwabakumgangatho ophakathi ongezantsi)
  • Umgca ocetywayo ozakuba ngumda wentlupheko (poverty line) ngokuqinisekileyo izakuba lelinye iqhinga urhulumente azukufihla ngalo  intlupheko kwakunye nendlela azakubonisa ngayo ‘inkqubela’. Ngokwe StatsSA bonke abantu abafumana umhlala-phantsi karhulumente baphila kumgangatho ongasentla wentlupheko – abadala bethu bagcinwa endlaleni ngelixesha ongxowankulu baqinisekiswa iingeniso! (abahluphekileyo abafikeleli esonkeni kodwa, urhulumente uthi, ekungenani abo bakumhlala phantsi bayafikelela kwisonka esomileyo) 
  • Isivumelwano ‘sokunika amandla’ kwicandelo lezempilo, esifanayo nalenkqubo yokuhlawulisa umhlala-phantsi ngesinyanzelo, naso sisezicwangcwisweni zikarhulumente yaye sixhaswa ngokuxhalabisayo yi People’s Budget Campaign (olunye uxhuzulo ngesinyanzelo emivuzweni lusendleleni)
  • Kwakhiwa ezinye iintolongo, iinkundla zamatyala namapolisa asezicwangcisweni yaye omantyi benkundla eziphezulu nezamaphondo bazakufumana iwaka lezigidi (R1 Billion) ngaphezulu. Icandelo lezentlola nalo lifumane uchatha. Oku kuthetha ukuthi ukuba ngungcothoza (spying) kukarhulumente kumaqabane namayelekenqe nokubanjwa njengoko kwaseKennedy Road 5 kuzakuthanda ukuqhubeka yaye kubesisiqhelo
  • Amawaka ezigidi abekelwe bucala azokuxhasa ngezemikhosi kwizicwangciso zama impiriyali eAfrika. Ingxowa-mali yeRDP isetyenziswa njengengxowa-mali yoncedo kwezemikhosi endaweni yokwakha izindlu (imikhosi ye SA eDarfur, DRC, njalo njalo).
  • Ityala elikhoyo kwimizi emikhulu egcina imali limi kumakhulu amane anamashumi asixhenxe ezigidi zamawaka erandi (R470 Billion) yaye inzala esiyihlawulayo iyodwa ifikelela kumashumi amahlanu anesithandathu ezigidi zamawaka erandi (R56 Billion) ngonyaka ngamnye. (obunye ubungqina bentsebenziswano esekuhleni phakathi korhulumente nemizi egcina imali)
  • Abasebenzi bazakusebenza nzima kunangaphambili njengokuba urhulumente emise umqathango wemali emayihlawulwe kofele emsebenzini ime kwi R300 000.
  • Uxhaphazo oluthe ngqo lwabasebenzi kwaTelkom, Acsa nakwezinye inkampani ezinkulu ngolawulo oludibene nongxowankulu behlabathi.
  • Izigidi ezithathu nangaphezu kwesiqingatha (3.6 million) zamalungu avalele kumzantsi zivumela imizi egcina imali ibenesiswenye samahlwempu abasebenzi sokuwaxhaphaza (njengokuba indleko ezibizwa yimizi egcina imali ziqhubeka ukubaphezulu, iphulo leSACP lobulungu kwimizi egcina imali libonisa umfela-ndawonye wabo wenene nemizi egcina imali)
  • Uphungulo lwerhafu kwabangentla bomgangatho ophakathi nakongxowankulu. Le mali (eyi R80 Billion ngonyaka ngamnye) ngeyisetyenziswe ekwakheni imisebenzi esisigxina, ekwakheni izindlu, njalo njalo.  
  • Isabelo seshumi ekhulwini (10%) kushishino lwedayimani kwinto ebizwa inkampani yedayimani karhulumente ibonisa ukuba i-ANC ithengiwe ngu De Beers / Anglo American iqhubeke ngokushishina no’Sirayeli’ (apho uninzi lwedayimani zehlabathi ziqhekezwayo yaye zipolishwe). Urhulumente ukumfela ndawonye noAnglo-American exhasa ukwahlulwa-hlulwa kwangabo kwabasebenzi kuMbindi-Mpuma.

Isiphelo
Imo yobungxowankulu yoluhlahlo lwabiwo-mali, ebonakalisiweyo kumanqaku angaphambili akwi Workers International News (2003, 2004, 2005) ayiqhubekeki kuphela kodwa ibonisa imeko emaxongo ekhulayo kubasebenzi, ngelilixa ongxowankulu abadibeneyo nama impiriyali beqhubeka bexhamla iingeniso umgangatho abangazange bawuphumelele ngaphambili kwimbali yoMzantsi Afrika. Into oluhlahlo lwabiwo-mali oluqhubeka ngokuyibonakalisa yeyokuba umlo wemeko yobuSoshali (Socialism) eMzantsi Afrika ngum ba wehlabathi, ofuna umzabalazo wempumelelo wabasebenzi abakumbindi wama impiriyali njengomqathango ophambili wokuzinzisa urhulumente wabasebenzi eMzantsi Afrika.

Phantsi kwalemeko yentsebenziswano yeANC, yeSACP, yenkokheli zikaCosatu nemizi egcina imali nenkampani ezinkulu ezidibeneyo, kufuneka simanye abasebenzi eMzantsi Afrika, eAfrika yaye ngenene kwihlabathi. Into esiyidingayo ngumbutho wabasebenzi eMzantsi Afrika njengesebe lombutho wotshintsho olululo wehlabathi (revolutionary international), ukwakhiwa kwakho kwentlanganisela yesine yemibutho yamaKomanisi ehlabathi (Fourth International). Sibeth’ ikhwelo kubasebenzi kwindawo ngendawo bangahambisani noluhlahlo lwabiwo-mali longxowankulu nama impiriyali kwakunye norhulumente. Masimanyaneni ngaphandle kobulungu obahlukeneyo bemanyano zabasebenzi. Basebenzi behlabathi manyanani! Akukho nto masiphulukane nayo ngaphandle kwamatyathanga ethu!

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